Thursday, November 12, 2015

What Causes Hiccups?

Contractions that are involuntary and are of two kinds in the diaphragm causes hiccups. There is a diaphragm that is situated between the stomach and the chest. When you inhale the diaphragm presses down and the lungs are filled with air. The reverse occurs when you exhale. Hiccups can be caused b eating too much, too fast or food that is disagreeable to your system. Hiccups can also be caused by the formation of gas or increase in acidity which irritates the diaphragm resulting in sudden contraction.

One of the old wives tale for the curing of hiccups is to hold your breath for a long spell as tolerable as you can. Another is to drink water while holding your breath.

In case these methods do not work try holding a bag tightly over your nose and mouth and breath in for a minute or two. It is believed that the relative high amount of carbon-dioxide in your blood will inhibit your hiccups.

Saturday, January 14, 2012

Why Does It Itch When A Wound Heals?

Itching, as stated in the previous post, is caused by the release of a substance known as histamine that stimulates the nerve endings. When tissues become inflamed due to the invasion of bacteria or by trauma such as heat, chemicals or a cut, histamine is released from the cells to the tissues. And, since histamine is a powerful vasodilator, it increases blood flow and the permeability of the blood capillaries in the vicinity of the wound. Apart from this a number white blood cells known as basophils increases during healing. Basophils contains a huge amount of histamine which diffuses into the nearby skin and stimulates the nerve endings, which in turn, leads to itching.

How Does Scratching Stop Itching?

When our cells get damaged itching results. Due to this small damage substances such as histamine (the amine that plays a role in allergic phenomena and the widening of blood vessels) are freed and which irritates the nerves and fibers in the skin. This irritation sends signals similar to pain to the central nervous system. There is a similarity between telephone lines and a switchboard. The function of a switchboard is to route incoming calls and to ensure that only one line at a time is connected to a particular numbered telephone. This effectively blocks the telephone from other incoming calls. Similarly, the itch signal can be blocked by occupying the central nervous system by another incoming message like the sensation of scratching, which is less irritating.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

What Does "Schedule H Drug" Indicate?

The Drugs and Cosmetic Act and Rules (D&C Act) covers the manufacture and sales of all drugs. One of the schedules of the D&C Act rules is the Schedule H.This schedule includes the prescription of drugs under rules 96 and 97.

Rule 96 requires that a conspicuous red vertical line is printed on the left side running throughout the body of the label of the innermost container and the other covering of the container in which the drug is packed.

Rule 97 deals with the labeling of the medicines. If it contains a Schedule drug then the symbol Rx should be conspicuously displayed and the warning "Schedule H Drug" to be sold only on the prescription of a medical practitioner should also be printed in the container.

Schedule H drugs include a huge list of medicine which commonly include narcotic drugs, ranitidine, mabandazole, ibuprofen, diazepam and some anti-biotics.

What Is The Function Of An Incubator?

An incubator functions to sustain the life of a prematurely born baby who generally weigh less than a kilogram at birth. The incubator provides an ideal life environment by keeping it sterile, controlling temperature, relative humidity and more oxygen content (up to 40% - twice the normal content of normal air).

The incubator is a special air-conditioned chamber with a climate control system of its own that is built into it. A motor that is built in draws air from the outside and it is freed from germs through a filter for bacteria which then flows through a heating system that is thermostatically controlled and a water evaporator. Oxygen is added in it if found to be required. A slight extra pressure is maintained in the incubator, that sees to it that the air flow is always directed inwards and the carbon-dioxide that is exhaled is carried away.

Usually, the baby that is born prematurely is kept in an incubator for the first few weeks of its life and all manipulations regarding nursing is done through special holes which are provided with devices that seal and fit closely around the arm of the nursing attendant. Th baby is fed, weighed, cleaned and treated medically all inside the incubator. Even minor operations can be carried out inside the incubator.

The incubator is equipped with a number of safety devices that monitor electric failure, oxygen or water supply and the temperature and a warning sound is sounded to alert the nursing attendant.

On the whole an incubator keeps a prematurely born live through its first few weeks of its precious life.